Data is principally critical for organizations and even individuals. Everyone wants to keep store data safe and secure but it is not enough. While organization also needs data management, distribution, and computing. Today, All organizations want to grow fast as possible. That is why they love to choose all-in-one platforms for data. Introducing Claud Computing, almost 92% of organizations are based on this service, and they feel like more outcomes with less effort for data management. Let’s learn the concept of cloud computing in this blog article.
What is Claud Computing?
Claud Computing simply refers to a technical service where you can store and host your data at the data center, and be able to access it anywhere or on any device via the internet connection. This giant data center is managed by a cloud service provider or CSP ( i.e AWS, Azure, etc ). Claud computing allows you to host such applications, servers (physical servers and virtual servers), data storage, development tools, networking capabilities, and more. The CSP allows these resources available for a monthly subscription fee or bills them according to usage.
The term ‘cloud computing also refers to the technology that makes the cloud work including some form of virtualized IT infrastructure. Cloud computing-based services are hugely used by us in daily life. Gmail or e-mail applications, saleforce, ms office, etc are good examples of cloud applications based. We use daily basis Streaming media like Netflix, Spotify, YouTube, Facebook, Twitter, etc are still cloud-based. Also, sometimes we need to store our files, we use cloud file storage like Dropbox, Google Drive, etc to store them.
Claud computing features
- Lower the IT cost
- Boost Agility and quickly accelerate the organization
- Easy Maintenance
- Large Network Acess
- Excellent Availability
- Automatic System
- Cloud security
- Computed service
Lower IT cost
It is an all-in-one investment for data management and computing. Cloud computing delivers all important features to run a successful organization with the handling of data in a signal platform. By this, we no longer need to purchase individual services for data such as CDN, Storage, Processor, hardware, software, machine learning, etc. Due to all-in-one cloud computing privileges lower IT costs.
Boost Agility and quickly accelerate the organization
Organizations can start using enterprise applications in minutes by switching to the cloud. While without cloud may wait weeks or months for IT to respond to a request, purchase and configure supporting hardware, and install the software. Cloud also lets you empower certain users specifically developers and data scientists to help themselves to software and support infrastructure. That is a big privilege to accelerate the organization’s work.
The servers are easily maintained and the downtime is very low and even in some cases, there is no downtime. Cloud Computing comes up with an update every time by gradually making it better.
The updates are more compatible with the devices and perform faster than older ones along with the bugs which are fixed.
Large Network Access
The user can access the data of the cloud or upload the data to the cloud from anywhere just with the help of a device and an internet connection. These capabilities are available all over the network and accessed with the help of the internet.
Cloud computing automatically analyzes the data needed and supports a metering capability at some level of services. We can monitor, control, and report the usage. It will provide transparency for the host as well as the customer.
Cloud Security, is one of the best features of cloud computing. It creates a snapshot of the data stored so that the data may not get lost even if one of the servers gets damaged.
The data is stored within the storage devices, which cannot be hacked and utilized by any other person. The storage service is quick and reliable.
Pay exactly as for the required service
In cloud computing, the user has to pay only for the service or the space they have utilized. There is no hidden or extra charge which is to be paid. The service is economical and most of the time some space is allotted for free.
Cloud Computing resources are used to monitor and the company uses them for recording. This resource utilization is analyzed by supporting charge-per-use capabilities.
This means that the resource usages which can be either virtual server instances that are running in the cloud are getting monitored measured and reported by the service provider. The model pay as you go is variable based on the actual consumption of the manufacturing organization.
Cloud Security Features
According to security software provider McAfee, today, 52% of companies experience better security in the cloud than on-premises. And Gartner has predicted that by year (2020), infrastructure as a service (IaaS) cloud workloads will experience 60% fewer security incidents than those in traditional data centers.
Maintaining cloud security demands different procedures and employee skillsets than in legacy IT environments. Some cloud security best practices include the following..
Generally, the cloud provider is responsible for securing cloud infrastructure and the customer is responsible for protecting its data within the cloud—but it’s also important to clearly define data ownership between private and public third parties.
Data should be encrypted while at rest, in transit, and use. Customers need to maintain full control over security keys and hardware security modules.
User identity and access management
Customer and IT teams need a full understanding of and visibility into network, device, application, and data access.
Proper communication and clear, understandable processes between IT, operations, and security teams will ensure seamless cloud integrations that are secure and sustainable.
Security and compliance monitoring
This begins with understanding all regulatory compliance standards applicable to your industry and setting up active monitoring of all connected systems and cloud-based services to maintain visibility of all data exchanges between public, private, and hybrid cloud environments.
Cloud computing service
Cloud computing services come with the three most common models and are widely preferred by almost all organizations.
The three most common models are
Types of Claud Computing
A private cloud is a cloud environment in which all cloud infrastructure and computing resources are dedicated to, and accessible by, one customer only. The private cloud combines many of the benefits of cloud computing. It includes elasticity, scalability, and ease of service delivery with the access control, security, and resource customization of on-premises infrastructure.
A private cloud is typically hosted on-premises in the customer’s data center. But a private cloud can also be hosted on an independent cloud provider’s infrastructure or built on rented infrastructure housed in an offsite data center.
Many companies choose the private cloud over the public cloud because the private cloud is an easier way (or the only way) to meet their regulatory compliance requirements. Others choose the private cloud because their workloads deal with confidential documents, intellectual property, personally identifiable information (PII), medical records, financial data, or other sensitive data.
Public cloud is a type of cloud computing in which a cloud service provider makes computing resources. Anything from SaaS applications, to individual virtual machines (VMs), to bare metal computing hardware, to complete enterprise-grade infrastructures and development platforms. It is available to users over the public internet. These resources might be accessible for free, or access might be sold according to subscription-based or pay-per-usage pricing models.
The public cloud provider owns, manages, and assumes all responsibility for the data centers, hardware, and infrastructure on which its customers’ workloads run, and it typically provides high-bandwidth network connectivity to ensure high performance and rapid access to applications and data.
The multi-tenant environment in Public Cloud
The public cloud is a multi-tenant environment where the cloud provider’s data center infrastructure is shared by all public cloud customers. In the leading public clouds such as Amazon Web Services (AWS), Google Cloud, IBM Cloud, Microsoft Azure, and Oracle Cloud. These CSPs ( cloud service providers ) customers can number in the millions.
The global market for public cloud computing has grown rapidly over the past few years, and analysts forecast that this trend will continue; industry analyst Gartner predicts that worldwide public cloud revenues will exceed USD 330 billion by the end of 2022 (link resides outside IBM).
Many enterprises are moving portions of their computing infrastructure to the public cloud because public cloud services are elastic and readily scalable, flexibly adjusting to meet changing workload demands. Others are attracted by the promise of greater efficiency and fewer wasted resources since customers pay only for what they use. Still, others seek to reduce spending on hardware and on-premises infrastructures.
Public Cloud Security
Traditionally, security concerns have been the number-one obstacle for organizations considering the public cloud. In response to demand, however, the security offered by cloud service providers is steadily outstripping on-premises security solutions.
With the growing popularity of containers which can greatly enhance security in cloud-native application architectures. With the new public cloud offerings that include vendor-certified compliance with industry standards and regulations, it’s becoming easier than ever to maintain a security posture that’s at least as strong as what can be achieved with on-premises infrastructures.
According to security software provider McAfee, today 52% of companies experience better security in the cloud than on-premises. Gartner has predicted that by year 2020, infrastructure as a service (IaaS) cloud workloads will experience 60% fewer security incidents than those in traditional data centers.
Nonetheless, maintaining such security standards in the public cloud demands different governance procedures and employee skillsets than in legacy IT environments. Cloud security requires strong access management, encryption for data at rest, in transit, or use, and excellent visibility to monitor, detect and manage cyber threats.
A hybrid cloud is just what it sounds like. It is a combination of public and private cloud environments. Specifically, and ideally, a hybrid cloud connects an organization’s private cloud services and public clouds into a single, flexible infrastructure for running the organization’s applications and workloads.
The goal of a hybrid cloud is to establish a mix of public and private cloud resources and with a level of orchestration between them that gives an organization the flexibility to choose the optimal cloud for each application or workload and to move workloads freely between the two clouds as circumstances change. This enables the organization to meet its technical and business objectives more effectively and cost-efficiently than it could with public or private cloud alone.
Saas is a software distribution model in cloud computing referred to as cloud-based software or cloud application. Saas applications software is hosted in the cloud and that you access and use via a web browser, a dedicated desktop client, or an API that integrates with your desktop or mobile operating system. SaaS customers have no hardware or software to buy, install, maintain, or update. Access to applications is easy: You just need an Internet connection. Generally, SaaS users pay a monthly or annual subscription fee; some may offer ‘pay-as-you-go’ pricing based on your actual usage.
SaaS is the primary delivery model for most commercial software today. There are hundreds of thousands of SaaS solutions available, from the most focused industry and departmental applications to powerful enterprise software databases and AI (artificial intelligence) software.
Due to its web delivery model, SaaS eliminates the need to have IT staff download and install applications on each computer. With SaaS, vendors manage all potential technical issues, such as data, middleware, servers, and storage, resulting in streamlined maintenance and support for the business.
A multitenant architecture, in which all users and applications share a single, common infrastructure and code base that is centrally maintained. Because SaaS vendor clients are all on the same infrastructure and code base, vendors can innovate more rapidly and save the valuable development time previously spent on maintaining numerous versions of outdated code.
The ability for each user to easily customize applications to fit their business processes without affecting the common infrastructure. Because of the way SaaS is architected, these customizations are unique to each company or user and are always preserved through upgrades. That means SaaS providers can make upgrades more often, with less customer risk and much lower adoption costs.
Improved access to data from any networked device while making it easier to manage privileges, monitor data use, and ensure everyone sees the same information at the same time.
SaaS Suppresses the Consumer Web
Anyone familiar with Amazon.com or My Yahoo! will be familiar with the Web interface of typical SaaS applications. With the SaaS model, you can customize with point-and-click ease, making the weeks or months it takes to update traditional business software seem hopelessly old-fashioned.
SaaS well Profitable
SaaS may be the most beneficial option in several situations, including:
- Startups or small companies that need to launch e-commerce quickly and don’t have time for server issues or software
- Short-term projects that require quick, easy, and affordable collaboration
- Applications that aren’t needed too often, such as tax software
- Applications that need both web and mobile access
PaaS provides software developers with an on-demand platform including hardware, complete software stack, infrastructure, and even development tools. It is for running, developing, and managing applications without the cost, complexity, and inflexibility of maintaining that platform on-premises. PaaS vastly simplifies web application development; from the developer’s perspective, all backend management takes place behind the scenes.
PaaS delivers a framework for developers that they can build upon and use to create customized applications. All servers, storage, and networking can be managed by the enterprise or a third-party provider while the developers can maintain management of the applications.
Today, PaaS is often built around containers, a virtualized compute model one step removed from virtual servers. Containers virtualize the operating system, enabling developers to package the application with only the operating system services it needs to run on any platform, without modification and without need for middleware.
The delivery model of PaaS is similar to SaaS, except instead of delivering the software over the internet, PaaS provides a platform for software creation. This platform is delivered via the web, giving developers the freedom to concentrate on building the software without having to worry about operating systems, software updates, storage, or infrastructure.
PaaS allows businesses to design and create applications that are built into the PaaS with special software components. These applications, sometimes called middleware, are scalable and highly available as they take on certain cloud characteristics.
What is included in PaaS
The main offerings included by PaaS vendors are:
- Development tools
- Operating systems
- Database management
Development tools:- PaaS vendors offer a variety of tools that are necessary for software development, including a source code editor, a debugger, a compiler, and other essential tools. These tools may be offered together as a framework. The specific tools offered will depend on the vendor, but PaaS offerings should include everything a developer needs to build their application.
Middleware:- Platforms offered as a service usually include middleware, so that developers don’t have to build it themselves. Middleware is software that sits in between user-facing applications and the machine’s operating system; for example, middleware is what allows the software to access input from the keyboard and mouse. It is necessary for running an application, but end users don’t interact with it.
Operating systems:- A PaaS vendor will provide and maintain the operating system that developers work on and the application runs on.
Database:- PaaS providers administer and maintain databases. They will usually provide developers with a database management system as well.
Infrastructure:- PaaS is the next layer up from IaaS in the cloud computing service model, and everything included in IaaS is also included in PaaS. A PaaS provider either manages servers, storage, and physical data centers or purchases them from an IaaS provider.
Benefits of PaaS
Developers love to use PaaS due to the following benefits are
- Faster time to market
- Affordable access to a wider variety of resources.
- More freedom to experiment, with less risk
- Easy, cost-effective scalability.
- Greater flexibility for development teams.
- Lower costs overall.
- Ease of licensing
Faster time to market
PaaS is used to build applications more quickly than would be possible if developers had to worry about building, configuring, and provisioning their platforms and backend infrastructure. With PaaS, all they need to do is write the code and test the application, and the vendor handles the rest.
Affordable access to a wider variety of resources
PaaS platforms typically offer access to a wider range of choices up and down the application stack It including operating systems, middleware, databases, and development tools—than most organizations can practically or affordably maintain themselves.
More freedom to experiment, with less risk.
PaaS also lets you try or test new operating systems, languages, and other tools without having to make substantial investments in them, or in the infrastructure required to run them.
Easy, cost-effective scalability.
With an on-premises platform, scaling is always expensive, often wasteful, and sometimes inadequate: You have to purchase additional compute, storage, and networking capacity in anticipation of traffic spikes; much of that capacity sits idle during low-traffic periods, and none of it can be increased in time to accommodate unanticipated surges. With PaaS, you can purchase additional capacity, and start using it immediately, whenever you need it.
Greater flexibility for development teams.
PaaS services provide a shared software development environment that allows development and operations teams access to all the tools they need, from any location with an internet connection.
Lower costs overall.
PaaS reduces costs by enabling an organization to avoid capital equipment expenses associated with building and scaling an application platform. But PaaS also can reduce or eliminate software licensing costs. And by handling patches, updates, and other administrative tasks, PaaS can reduce your overall application management costs.
Ease of licensing
PaaS providers handle all licensing for operating systems, development tools, and everything else included in their platform.
How PaaS work
PaaS works by delivering all standard development tools through the GUI online interface, developers can log in from anywhere to collaborate on projects, test new applications, or roll out completed products. Applications are designed and developed right in the PaaS using middleware. With streamlined workflows, multiple development and operations teams can work on the same project simultaneously.
PaaS has mainly three parts on a work basis
- Cloud infrastructure includes virtual machines (VMs), operating system software, storage, networking, firewalls
- Software for building, deploying, and managing applications
- A graphic user interface, or GUI, where development or DevOps teams can do all their work throughout the entire application lifecycle
PaaS architecture cannot fully replace a business’ infrastructure needs but can offer comprehensive services for development avenues. In addition to a development space, many PaaS solutions offer additional cloud-based resources to enhance software development, including support for varying languages, access to libraries, and database management systems. In all, this can be a compelling and affordable alternative to creating an internal environment hosted on in-house servers.
Use Cases of PaaS
Use cases of PasS come with the following
- API development and management
- Internet of Things (IoT)
- Agile development and DevOps
- Cloud migration and cloud-native development
- Hybrid cloud strategy
API development and management:
Because of API development and management built-in frameworks, PaaS makes it much simpler for teams to develop, run, manage and secure APIs (application programming interfaces) for sharing data and functionality between applications.
Internet of Things (IoT):
Out of the box, PaaS can support a range of programming languages (Java, Python, Swift, etc.), tools and application environments used for IoT application development and real-time processing of data generated by IoT devices.
Agile development and DevOps:
PaaS can provide fully-configured environments for automating the software application lifecycle including integration, delivery, security, testing, and deployment.
Cloud migration and cloud-native development:
With its ready-to-use tools and integration capabilities, PaaS can simplify the migration of existing applications to the cloud—particularly via platforming (moving an application to the cloud with modifications that take better advantage of cloud scalability, load balancing, and other capabilities) or refactoring (re-architecting some or all of an application using microservices, containers, and other cloud-native technologies).
Hybrid cloud strategy
The hybrid cloud integrates public cloud services, private cloud services, and on-premises infrastructure and provides orchestration, management, and application portability across all three. The result is a unified and flexible distributed computing environment, where an organization can run and scale its traditional (legacy) or cloud-native workloads on the most appropriate computing model. The right PaaS solution allows developers to build once, then deploy and manage anywhere in a hybrid cloud environment.
What build-purpose of PaaS
Many clouds, software, and hardware vendor offer PaaS solutions for building specific types of applications. The purposes that SaaS make ease
- AIPaaS (PaaS for Artificial Intelligence)
- iPaaS (integration platform as a service)
- cPaaS (communications platform as a service)
- mPaaS (mobile platform as a service)
AIPaaS (PaaS for Artificial Intelligence)
lets development teams build artificial intelligence (AI) applications without the often prohibitive expense of purchasing, managing and maintaining the significant computing power, storage capabilities and networking capacity these applications require. AiPaaS typically includes pre-trained machine learning and deep learning models developers can use as-is or customize, and ready-made APIs for integrating specific AI capabilities, such as speech recognition or speech-to-text conversion, into existing or new applications.
iPaaS (integration platform as a service)
It is a cloud-hosted solution for integrating applications. iPaaS provides organizations a standardized way to connect data, processes, and services across public cloud, private cloud and on-premises environments without having to purchase, install and manage their own backend integration hardware, middleware and software. (Note that Paas solutions often include some degree of integration capability—API management, for example—but iPaaS is more comprehensive.)
cPaaS (communications platform as a service)
It is a PaaS that lets developers easily add voice (inbound and outbound calls), video (including teleconferencing) and messaging (text and social media) capabilities to applications, without investing in specialized communications hardware and software.
mPaaS (mobile platform as a service)
It is a PaaS that simplifies application development for mobile devices. mPaaS typically provides low-code (even simple drag-and-drop) methods for accessing device-specific features including the phone’s camera, microphone, motion sensor and geolocation (or GPS) capabilities.
In computing, infrastructure refers to the computers and servers that run code and store data, and the wires and appliances that make connections between those machines. For example, servers, hard drives, and routers are all part of infrastructure. Before cloud computing was an option, most businesses hosted their own infrastructure and ran all their applications on-premise.
IaaS enables end users to scale and shrink resources on an as-needed basis, reducing the need for high, up-front capital expenditures or unnecessary “owned” infrastructure, especially in the case of “spiky” workloads. In contrast to PaaS and SaaS (even newer computing models like containers and serverless), IaaS provides the lowest-level control of resources in the cloud.
IaaS emerged as a popular computing model in the early 2010s, and since that time, it has become the standard abstraction model for many types of workloads. However, with the advent of new technologies, such as containers and serverless, and the related rise of the microservices application pattern, IaaS remains foundational but is in a more crowded field than ever.
Advantages of IaaS
The features delivered by Iaas are the most suitable for some organization categories. . Here some advantages of Iaas that makes them more profitable and well organized.
- Pay-as-you-Go: Unlike traditional IT, IaaS does not require any upfront, capital expenditures, and end users are only billed for what they use.
- Speed: With IaaS, users can provision small or vast amounts of resources in a matter of minutes, testing new ideas quickly or scaling proven ones even quicker.
- Availability: Through things like multizone regions, the availability and resiliency of cloud applications can exceed traditional approaches.
- Scale: With seemingly limitless capacity and the ability to scale resources either automatically or with some supervision, it’s simple to go from one instance of an application or workload to many.
- Latency and performance: Given the broad geographic footprint of most IaaS providers, it’s easy to put apps and services closers to your users, reducing latency and improving performance.
Architecture and working of Iaas Platform.
IaaS is made up of a collection of physical and virtualized resources that provide consumers with the basic building blocks needed to run applications and workloads in the cloud.
Physical data center
IaaS providers will manage large data centers, typically around the world, that contain the physical machines required to power the various layers of abstraction on top of them and that are made available to end users over the web. In most IaaS models, end-users do not interact directly with the physical infrastructure, but it is provided as a service to them.
IaaS is typically understood as virtualized compute resources and referred to as a virtual machine. Providers manage the hypervisors and end users can then programmatically provision virtual “instances” with desired amounts of compute and memory (and sometimes storage). Most providers offer both CPUs and GPUs for different types of workloads. Cloud computing also typically comes paired with supporting services like auto-scaling and load balancing that provide the scale and performance characteristics that make the cloud desirable in the first place.
Networking in the cloud is a form of Software Defined Networking in which traditional networking hardware, such as routers and switches, are made available programmatically, typically through APIs. More advanced networking use cases involve the construction of multi-zone regions and virtual private clouds, both of which will be discussed in more detail later.
The three primary types of cloud storage are block storage, file storage, and object storage. Block and file storage are common in traditional data centers but can often struggle with the scale, performance, and distributed characteristics of the cloud. Thus, of the three, object storage has thus become the most common mode of storage in the cloud given that it is highly distributed (and thus resilient), it leverages commodity hardware, data can be accessed easily over HTTP, and scale is not only essentially limitless but performance scales linearly as the cluster grows.
Use Cases of Iaas
IaaS represents general purpose compute resources and is thus capable of supporting use cases of all types. Today, IaaS is most commonly used for dev and test environments, customer-facing websites and web applications, data storage, analytics and data warehousing workloads, and backup and recovery, particularly for on-premises workloads. IaaS is also a good fit for deploying and running common business software and applications, such as SAP.
And while IaaS is capable of supporting a very diverse array of workloads, as we will explore in later sections, there are emerging compute models that might be better positioned to support certain types of workloads or application architectures, such as microservices.
Deployment of IaaS into multi-cloud and hybrid cloud
Multicloud deployments and most hybrid cloud deployments involve integrating multiple cloud services. Many businesses taking a multi-cloud approach use one cloud provider for IaaS and integrate with PaaS and SaaS services on top of that. Some companies may also use multiple IaaS providers, either for redundancy or for handling separate computing workloads in parallel.
Businesses using hybrid clouds can integrate IaaS with on-premises infrastructure or private clouds, along with other public cloud services.
Pricing of Iaas
IaaS is typically priced on a consumption basis, meaning users are only charged for what they use. Over time, the pricing models of cloud infrastructure have come to span many different levels of granularity:
- Subscriptions and reserved instances: Many providers offer discounts off the sticker price for clients willing to commit to longer contract terms, typically around one to three years.
- Monthly billing: Monthly billing models are most common in the BMaaS market, where physical infrastructure typically implies steady-state workloads without spiky characteristics.
- By the hour/second: The most common granularity for traditional cloud infrastructure, end users are charged only for what they use.
- Transient/spot: Some providers will offer up unused capacity at a discount via transient/spot instances, but those instances can be reclaimed if the capacity is needed.
Use Cases of Cloud
Desaster as a service (DRaaS)
DRaaS Quickly become one of the core use cases for cloud computing, disaster recovery is critical to every business. With downtime causing companies to lose time and money, DR works to ensure your business can quickly recover and get back online in the event of a disaster. By having a standby site in the cloud for DR purposes, failover is quick and easy and does not require you to build and maintain your infrastructure.
Backup as a Service (BaaS)
One of the easiest ways to begin your shift to the cloud is to invest in a backup solution. IT professionals know that having just one copy of your data onsite opens you up to vulnerabilities in the event of a disaster.
Desktop as a Service (DaaS)
With the mobile workforce growing in prevalence, employees are increasingly bringing their own devices. Virtual desktops and DaaS have emerged as a way for IT departments to standardize security and content access across devices. VDI and DaaS help to curb the effects of a disaster because they are hosted in the cloud and can be easily accessed from any device.
Software as a Service (SaaS)
As companies grow and gather more data, SaaS technology has entered the market as a way to store, organize and maintain that data. Marketing automation tools, customer relationship management (CRM), etc. have helped lines of business to more efficiently do their jobs. Often referred to as “software on demand,” SaaS solutions are centrally hosted in the cloud and can be accessed from anywhere, any time.
Software-Defined Wide Area Networking (SD-WAN)
SD-WAN has emerged to resolve the issue of bogged down networking due to cloud applications. SD-WAN integrates with your existing network solution to speed up your connectivity, addressing a major issue that is underrated.
Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)
Building out a data center can easily cost a company millions of dollars. For this reason, companies are opting forego capital expenditures in favor of operational expenditures and host data in service provider run data centers. This allows companies to avoid costly infrastructure investments and easily access their data via the cloud.
Big Data Analytics
Big Data Powerhouses, like Amazon and Facebook collect information on consumer buying trends, likes, dislikes and analyzing the data to predict future purchases and grow their businesses. Companies today are all trying to collect and understand big data to make decisions on sales, marketing, R&D, and more. When it comes to storing, managing and analyzing this data, the cloud is a very powerful tool.
Test and Development
The flexibility of the cloud allows for environments to be built up, tested and torn down quickly. There is no need to wait months for the provisioning of a new environment, the cloud can be spun up in a matter of minutes. The accessibility of the cloud means that your business is more efficient, and time to market for new developments can be cut down.