Vitamin K Basic instruction

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Vitamin K is a fat-soluble vitamin that found in green leafy vegetables, animal foods, and fermented foods. Generally, there are two types of vitamin A. The main type is phylloquinone and other menaquinones. Phylloquinone is a form of green leafy vegetables like collard greens, kale, and spinach. Menaquinones are found in some animal foods and fermented foods. It can also be produced by bacteria in the human body. Vitamin K enables to make of various proteins that are required for blood clotting and the building of bones. Vitamin K is founds in the body including the liver, brain, heart, pancreas, and bone. It broken down very quickly and excreted in urine or stool. That’s why it rarely reaches toxic levels in the body even with high intakes. The Vitamin K Basic instruction:-

The Role of vitamin K in our body

There are some major roles of vitamin K in our body. First, it performs in blood clots. Vitamin K helps to make four of the 13 proteins needed for blood clotting, which stops wounds from continuously bleeding so they can heal. Second, it maintains bone health. Vitamin K is involve in the production of proteins in bone, including osteocalcin. Osteocalcin is necessary to prevent the weakening of bones [1]. Third, it helps to keep control of heart disease. Vitamin k is involve in the production of matrix Gla proteins (MGP). MGP( matrix Gla proteins) help to prevent calcification or hardening of heart arteries and is a contributor to heart disease [2].

Deficiency of vitamin k

Vitamin K deficiency in adults is rare but may occur in people taking medications that block vitamin K metabolism such as antibiotics. A deficiency is also possible in newborn infants because vitamin K does not cross the placenta, and breast milk contains a low amount. The following are the most common signs of a deficiency.

  • Bleeding
  • Hemorrhaging
  • Osteopenia or osteoporosis
  • blood to clot or a prolonged prothrombin time for a longer time

Sources of Vitamin K


  • Green leafy vegetables including collard and turnip greens, kale, spinach, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, lettuces
  • Soybean and canola oil
  • Salad dressings made with soybean or canola oil
  • Fortified meal replacement shakes


  • Natto (fermented soybeans)
  • Smaller amounts in meat, cheese, eggs

For adults 19 years and older, the AI for vitamin K is 120 micrograms (mcg) daily for men and 90 mcg for women and for those who are pregnant or lactating. There is not enough evidence to establish a Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA). Therefore, it can’t estimate the RDA properly.


Vitamin k breaks down very quickly. Hence, it easily excreted in urine or stool. Because of this,  it rarely reaches toxic levels in the body even with high intakes. Hence, there is not enough evidence to show the number of side effects taking the Upper limit.

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