Mars is the fourth planet from the sun and the second planet nearest the earth after venus. It is also the second smallest planet after mercury in our solar system. It is often referred to as mars the Red Planet. When astronauts see it from space found a reddish color outside the mars atmosphere and resulted in red views. Two moons are existing from mars Phobos (FOE-bohs) and Deimos (DEE-mohs). They’re potato-shaped because they have too little mass for gravity to make them spherical. Mars is more than 142 million miles from the Sun. It takes sunlight 13 minutes to travel from the Sun to Mars. The average temperature on Mars is minus 80 degrees Fahrenheit. The largest volcano in the solar system is ‘Olympus Mons’ even the tallest mountain that still exists from Mars.
Mars’s atmosphere is much thinner than Earth’s. The average surface pressure is only about 610 pascals around less than 1% of the earth’s value. It is mainly composed of carbon dioxide (95%), molecular nitrogen (2.8%), and argon (2%). It is colder than Earth’s due to the long distance between the sun even the earth.
According to NASA, it has a dense core at its center between 930 and 1,300 miles (1,500 to 2,100 kilometers) in radius. It’s made of iron, nickel, and sulfur. Surrounding the core is a rocky mantle between 770 and 1,170 miles (1,240 to 1,880 kilometers) thick, and above that, a crust made of iron, magnesium, aluminum, calcium, and potassium. This crust is between 6 and 30 miles (10 to 50 kilometers) deep.
Orbit and Rotation
- It takes 24.6 hrs to complete a rotation almost very similar to the earth(23.9hrs)
- It takes 687 Earth days to complete an orbit around the sun.
- The average speed of mars in orbiting the sun is 14.5 miles per second or 86430 km/h.
- The rotational speed is 868.22 km/h or 241 m/s.
Size and volume of mars
- Radius:- The mars Radius is 2,106 miles / 3,390 kilometers.
- Volume:- volume is 1.6 x 1011 cubic kilometers.
- Mass:- It has 6.42 x 1023 kilograms, about 10 times less than Earth.